Dialectical Dictionaries In Odia Language As Socio-Linguistic Information Source

Prof. Pitambar Padhi
Sudhir Kumar Beura

Abstract Odia Dialectical Dictionaries: History and Development
Introduction Analysis and Observation
Linguistic Scenario in Odisha Finding and Suggestions

Abstract

An attempt is made to have an in-depth study of the history and development of Dialectical Dictionaries in Odia language as socio-linguistic information source. Conceptual definition, identification of Scheduled Tribes and their characteristics, mutual adaptation, sheds of convergence in Odia dialect, linguistic variation among different dialects of Scheduled and non-scheduled tribes with a chronological list of dialectical dictionaries in Tribal languages are discussed with analysis, findings and suggestions.

Keywords: Tribes, Tribal Language, Dialect, Socio-Linguistic, Information Source, Odia Dialect, Adaptation, Convergence, Linguistic variation, History, Development.

1. Introduction

Of the 29 states in India and 7 Union Territories, Odisha occupies an important place in the ethnographic map of India, home to 62 tribal communities, having a total population of 95, 90,756, constituting 22% of the entire population of the state, as per the census of 2011. These tribal communities got recognition of the constitution of India through promulgation of a scheduled tribe order of 1950.

Tribe as a concept is considered as a process of evolution of societies organized on the basis of kinship ties that enable them to form a multifunctional group at a place having following characteristics.

Odisha is a place where people of diverse ethnic, linguistic and cultural background are accommodated. The monumental temple at Puri in which, Sri Jagannath, once worshiped by a tribal leader of the Savar group, is today worshiped by non-tribals as the lord of the universe.

It may be borne in mind that in Odisha besides the standard Odia language, many variants of Odia language and the languages of tribal communities describe the linguistic map of Odisha. The influence of languages of adjoining states viz., Andhra Pradesh, Bengal and Chhatishgarh is also found in the speeches of the people, respectively, inhabiting the southern, northern and western border districts of Odisha.

2. Linguistic Scenario in Odisha

The 1991 census report enlisted, at all India level, the names of 1576 mother tongues, excluding all spurious returns. Following the usual linguistic method for rational grouping on the basis of available linguistic information, it is reduced to a consolidated list of 114 languages having minimum speaker strength of 10, 000 and above. Of the total 1576 mother tongues , only 91 mother tongues have been returned from the state of Odisha. These 91 mother tongues are grouped under 18 scheduled languages and 45 non-scheduled languages along with a total of other mother tongues, comprising 33, 810 speakers out of total of 31, 659, 736 speakers in the state of Odisha. All mother tongues return to Odisha don’t have equal demographic significance for the state of Odisha.

Fifteen numerically biggest languages in descending order of speakers’ strength and Fifteen mother tongues, grouped under different languages along with their percentage to the total population of the states as per 1991 census are shown below for understanding the language situation of Odisha in table I and table II.

Table I: Fifteen numerically biggest languages in descending order of strength in Odisha

Sl. No

Orissa Language

Number of Persons who returned the language as their mother tongue

Persons

Percentage of States total population

Rural

Urban

Proportion

Proportion Urban

1

Oriya

26,199,346

82.75

23,063,312

3,136,034

88.03

11.97

2

Hindi

759,016

2.40

441,351

317,665

58.15

41.97

3

Telugu

665,001

2.10

401,283

263,718

60.34

39.66

4

Santali

661,849

2.09

630,974

30,875

95.34

4.66

5

Kui

636,005

2.01

625,343

10,662

98.32

1.68

6

Urdu

502,102

1.59

306,521

195,581

61.05

38.95

7

Bengali

442,971

1.40

322,857

120,114

72.88

27.12

8

Ho

292,619

0.92

281,233

11,386

96.11

3.89

9

Munda

253,206

0.80

225,894

27,312

89.21

10.79

10

Savara

214,523

0.68

213,258

1,265

99.41.

0.59

11

Khond/Kondh

193,775

0.61

190,033

3,742

98.07

1.93

12

Kisan

160,704

0.51

150,619

10,085

93.72

6.28

13

Mundari

145,097

0.46

134,687

10,410

92.83

7.17

14

Koya

101,752

0.32

101,634

118

99.88

0.12

15

Kharia

89,336

0.28

82,229

7,107

92.04

7.96

16

Others

342,434

1.08

253,525

88,909

74.04

25.96

All Mother Tongues Total

31,659,739

100.00

27,424,753

4,234,983

86.62

13.38

Table II: Fifteen numerically biggest mother tongues in descending order of strength in Orissa

Sl. No

Orissa Mother tongue

Persons

Percentage to State total Population

Rural

Urban

Proportion Rural

Proportion Urban

1

Oriya

25,908,888

81.84

22,94,744

3,314,144

87.98

12.02

2

Telugu

663,833

2.10

400,117

263,716

60.27

39.73

3

Kui

636,005

2.01

625,343

10,662

98.32

1.68

4

Santali

616,337

1.95

586,142

30,195

95.10

4.90

5

Urdu

502,055

1.59

306,494

195,561

61.05

38.95

6

Bengali

439,170

1.39

322,183

116,987

73.36

26.64

7

Hindi

301,112

0.95

61,318

239,794

20.36

79.64

8.

Ho

291,942

0.92

280,616

11,326

96.12

3.88

9

Sadan/Sadri

248,089

0.78

199,929

48,160

80.59

19.41

10

Savara

214,523

0.68

213,258

1,265

99.41

0.59

11

KhondKkondh

191,177

0.60

187,435

3,742

98.04

1.96

12

Munda

169,399

0.54

146,591

22,808

86.54

13.46

13

Kisan

160,704

0.51

150,619

10,085

93.72

6.28

14

Mundari

145,084

0.46

134,687

10,397

92.83

7.17

15

Proja

114,289

0.36

109,368

4,921

95.69

4.31

16

Others

1,057,129

3.34

905,909

151,220

85,70

14.30

All Mother Tongues To Total

31,659,739

100.00

27,424,753

4,234,983

86.62

13.38

(Source: Linguistic Survey of India: Orissa language division, Registrar General of India, Kolkata, 2002.)

The dialects of Odia, covered in this paper, are spoken by people belonging to different tribal and non-tribal groups. They can be grouped under three categories, namely, Regional Dialects, Tribal Dialects and Social group Dialects. Regional Dialects comprise (i) standard Odia spoken by non-tribal population in Central, Northern and southern Odisha, and (ii) Sambalpuri Odia spoken by non-tribal population of Western Odisha. The Tribal dialects are the ones spoken by the tribes of Odisha, where as the Social group dialect is the Relli spoken by an occupational community known as Kela.

2.1 Mutual Adaptation

On scrutinising the description of various Indian languages and dialects, it is being observed that there has been mutual adaptation of phonological and morphological features as well as lexical items between the scheduled (Odia) and the non-scheduled (non-Odia language belonging to Aryan and Dravidian family) languages. Thus a number of non-Indo-Aryan linguistic features have entered into its systems

2.2 Shades of Convergence in Odia Dialect

In the subsystem of Odia language, it is noticed that the Sambalpuri dialect (and the standard Odia partly) contributed to the formation of satellite dialects, namely, Relli, Desia(proja), Bhatri and Bhuyan, which are spoken in fringe areas of the Southern Odisha (Koraput District), Andhra Pradesh (Vijayanagaram and Srikakulam Districts), Madhya Pradesh (Bastar Districts) and the North Western Odisha (Keonjhar District), the regions contiguous to the Sambalpuri dialect area. These satellite dialects have undergone some sort of convergence with Telugu of the Dravidian family as well as Hindi (Chhatisgarhi) so much so that in their structural and lexical dimensions the dominance of Sambalpuri dialect is observed.

2.3 Linguistic Variations of Tribal Dialect

In a most authentic publication namely, Tribes of Orissa, published by the Scheduled Caste and Scheduled Tribe Research and Training Institute, Bhubaneswar (2004) the linguistic variations of scheduled tribes inhabiting Orissa have been briefly presented, which are quoted below. It is important that these aspects should be taken note of before undertaking the job of compiling dialectical dictionaries of tribal languages

3. Odia Dialectical Dictionaries: History and Development

It may not be an over statement to present here that any community, tribal or non-tribal must possess a fully developed communication system i.e. a language. Thus, language is a medium of communication and it has its potential for the growth of the community. When the language is embodied in a document for the posterity, it carries cultural heritage through the literature, representing the views of the people. But communication becomes meaningless when the words used in the expression are not properly understood by the audience for whom these are expressed. Thus, arises a gap in communication. At this critical juncture, dictionary comes to their rescue by providing meaning to the expressed words in the communication system. Designing and developing dialectical dictionaries, therefore becomes a social necessity. In this context study of tribal language dictionaries in all their manifestations becomes the purpose and objective of this article.

If one traces the history and development of designing dialectical dictionary in Odia language, it will reveal that like compilation of Odia dictionaries in scheduled Odia language, the development of tribal language dictionaries has been quite slow. This is due to lack of education, research among the tribal communities, and required support from the Government. While designing dictionaries in Sanskrit language began in 4th & 5th century AD (Amar Kosa ) in metrical form, in Odia the first attempt in this direction was made in 18th century AD (about 1742/1743 AD) by Upendra Bhanja compiling Geetabhidhana in metrical form. In the non-metrical form the first dictionary, albeit thematic one, entitled "A Vocabulary: Oriya and English For the Use of Students" was compiled in the year 1811 by one Mohun Persaud Takoor, the librarian of Fort William College, Calcutta. It was in the year 1843 Amos Sutton and Bhubanananda Nyayalankara compiled a standard dictionary namely “An Oriya Dictionary” in three volumes. The credit of designing first dialectical dictionary goes to Dr. Kunja Bihari Tripathy for his work “An Anchalika Shabdakosa of Oriya Language (Western and Southern Odisha)” published under the auspices of Berhampur University, Odisha in 1974. It has been observed (Padhi, 1994, p.78) that there only9 dialectical dictionaries by the end of 1991. Such development of compiling dialectical dictionaries, though slow, took place due to research and institutional support received from Berhampur University, Tribal and Harijan Research Training Institute, Bhubaneswar, Academy of Tribal Dialect and Culture, Orissa, Bhubaneswar and Orissa Sahitya Academy. At present (by October 2015), there are 28 published Dialectical Dictionaries, the list of which is presented below (Table-III).in .

Table III: Chronological list of Dialectical Dictionaries in Odia

SlNo

Year

Title

Author/ Compiler

Publisher/ Place

Page

Entries

Remarks

Price

1

1974

An Anchalika Sabdakosha of the Oriya Language (Western & Southern Orissa), Vol-I

Kunja Bihari Tripathy

Berhampur University, Berhampur

163

3917

   

2

1984

Didayi

Pramoda Kumari Panda

ATDC, Bhubaneswar

209

2919

Divided into 3 parts, viz. grammar, text and dictionary

 

3

1985

Desia-A Tribal Oriya Dialect of Koraput District

Khageswar Mahapatra

THRTI, Bhubaneswar

304

3000

Divided into 3 parts, viz. grammar, text and dictionary

 

4

1987

Sambalpuri Odia Sabdakosha

Prafulla Kumar Tripathy

Orissa Sahitya Academi, Bhubaneswar

448

10142

Divided into 4 parts

 

5

1989

Kissan

Girija Sankar Goswami

ATDC, Bhubaneswar

179

1226

Divided into 3 parts, viz. grammar, text and dictionary

 

6

1990

Kui

Gopabandhu Das

ATDC, Bhubaneswar

217

 

Divided into 3 parts, viz. grammar, text and dictionary

 

7

1990

Oraon

Sabita Mahapatra

ATDC, Bhubaneswar

169

1840

Divided into 3 parts, viz. grammar, text and dictionary

 

8

1990

Santali

Lasa Majhi

ATDC, Bhubaneswar

188

2557

Divided into 3 parts, viz. grammar, text and dictionary

 

9

1991

Gadaba

Dukhishyam Gauda

ATDC, Bhubaneswar

148

1385

Divided into 3 parts, viz. grammar, text and dictionary

 

10

1991

Juang

Sasmita Mahapatra

ATDC, Bhubaneswar

132

 

Divided into 3 parts, viz. grammar, text and dictionary

52

11

1991

Koya

Dhaneswar Bej and P.N. Patel

ATDC, Bhubaneswar

143

 

Divided into 3 parts, viz. grammar, text and dictionary

55

12

1991

Kharia

A.K. Dasbabu

ATDC, Bhubaneswar

146

 

Divided into 3 parts, viz. grammar, text and dictionary

60

13

1991

Langia soara

P.N. Patel and Sriya Nayak

ATDC, Bhubaneswar

136

 

Divided into 3 parts, viz. grammar, text and dictionary

55

14

1992

Ho

Lata Bhol

ATDC, Bhubaneswar

195

 

Divided into 3 parts, viz. grammar, text and dictionary

69

15

1992

Desia

Khageswar Mahapatra

ATDC, Bhubaneswar

285

 

Divided into 3 parts, viz. grammar, text and dictionary

70

16

1993

Mundari

P.N. Patel and Sumita Tripathy

ATDC, Bhubaneswar

149

 

Divided into 3 parts, viz. grammar, text and dictionary

55

17

1993

Bonda

Kalandi Charan Sahoo and Sakti Prasad Samantray

ATDC, Bhubaneswar

121

 

Divided into 3 parts, viz. grammar, text and dictionary

50

18

1994

Parenga

Kumari S, Mahapatraray

ATDC, Bhubaneswar

144

 

Divided into 3 parts, viz. grammar, text and dictionary

58

19

1995

Sadri

Paramananda Patel

ATDC, Bhubaneswar

143

 

Divided into 3 parts, viz. grammar, text and dictionary

 

20

1995

Bruhat Santali odia abhidhana

Khageswar Mahapatra

ATDC, Bhubaneswar

418

     

21

1995

Santali odia sabdakosha

Lasha Majhi

ATDC, Bhubaneswar

418

   

150

22

2013

Odia-Kui shabdakosha: Kui bhashabashi pila o shikshakanka nimante sahayak pustika

Klemanta Nayak

ATLC, Bhubaneswar

439

 

Divided into 3 parts, viz. dictionary, wordbook and lesson & conversation

 

23

2013

Odia-Kuvi shabdakosha: Kuvi bhashabashi pila o shikshakanka nimante sahayak pustika

Paramananda Patel

ATLC, Bhubaneswar

168

 

Divided into 3 parts, viz. dictionary, wordbook and lesson & conversation

 

24

2013

Odia-Koya shabdakosha: Koya bhashabashi pila o shikshakanka nimante sahayak pustika

Paramananda Patel

ATLC, Bhubaneswar

120

 

Divided into 3 parts, viz. dictionary, wordbook and lesson & conversation

 

25

2013

Odia-Desia shabdakosha
: Desia bhashabashi pila o shikshakanka nimante sahayak pustika

Paramananda Patel

ATLC, Bhubaneswar

104

 

Divided into 3 parts, viz. dictionary, wordbook and lesson & conversation

 

26

2013

Odia-Saura shabdakosha
: Saura bhashabashi pila o shikshakanka nimante sahayak pustika

Paramananda Patel

ATLC, Bhubaneswar

100

 

Divided into 3 parts, viz. dictionary, wordbook and lesson & conversation

 

27

2014

Odia-Ho shabdakosha
: Ho bhashabashi pila o shikshakanka nimante sahayak pustika

Paramananda Patel

ATLC, Bhubaneswar

152

 

Divided into 3 parts, viz. dictionary, wordbook and lesson & conversation

 

28

2015

Odia-Oraon-Kisan shabdakosha :
matrubhashika prathamik shikshyadana
nimante eka sahayak shabdakosha

Paramananda Patel

ATLC, Bhubaneswar

184

 

Trilingual dictionary

 

4. Analysis and Observation

Analysis of the Table-III, shows that most of the dialectical dictionaries have three parts namely grammar, texts and word-meaning. , But with the compilation of “Odia Kui Shabdakosa “by Klemant Nayak in 2013, the earlier methodology of compilation has been changed, to dividing the whole work in three parts: word meaning, words thematically grouped with lessons and meaning of sentences commonly used in conversations. Most of the compilations are undertaken by a team of writers headed by Khageswar Mohapatra, Pramoda Kumari Panda, Girija Shankar Goswami, Gopabandhu Das, Sabita Mohapatra, Lasha Majhi , Dukhishyam Gauda,Sasmita Mohapatra, Dhaneswar Bej, Paramananda Patel, A. K. Dasbabu, Sriya Nayak, Lata Bhol, , Sumitra Tripathy, Kalandi Charan Sahoo, Sakti Prasad Samantray, S. Mohapatraray, and Klemanta Nayak. Of these writers Paramananda Patel has been most prolific having compiled 9 tribal dictionaries.

These dictionaries, it may be observed have been compiled by the scholars having expertise in tribal languages, odia language and linguistics. Further the compilation of each dialectical dictionary is an outcome of extensive fieldwork in the area speaking the corresponding dialect. The designing of the dictionaries has the objective of simplifying the education and training at the school level in a scientific manner. Most of the dictionaries are printed in a legible form having readability for learners All these dictionaries so far developed may also be useful for the students of comparative language while studying the impact of the tribal languages on non-tribal languages But these dictionaries have limitations in its use for higher learning and research. The ATLC should therefore make attempts for developing dictionaries of higher standards so that the students and teachers at higher level of learning and research can use these. Adaptation of many tribal terms, which are very well observed in most of the Indian languages, may able to help linking and establishing relationship between the standard and tribal languages.

Such compilation of dialectical dictionaries has helped towards the publication of a number of books, in Odia and English, under the titles Adibasi Chitrakala, Parampara o Gyana Kaushal, Janajati manankara Khadya o Khadyabhyasa, Adibasi Jiban Charya, Tribal Dance of Odisha, Chhau Dance, Folklore from Odisha, Tribal Housing, Tribal Language and Culture of Odisha, Adibasi Loka Katha, Sanskruti o Loka Sahitya, Paschima Odishara Adibasi Loka Sahitya, Adibasi Jiban Charjya and Dhara, Loka Kahani, and some biographies of different tribal personalities. These publications,needless to say, has given exposure to non-tribals of the richness of tribal culture and tradition.

Desia Gyanakosha compiled by Rajendra Padhi and Bijaya Upadhyaya (2000) under the auspices of the ATLC Bhubaneswar, containing 1073 entries under 31 Odia alphabets covering 500 pages with grammatical positions and indicating derivation and usages along with descriptive meaning is a milestone in compilation of encyclopedic dictionary in tribal language. Though it is named as Gyanakosa, it seems more a dictionary than an encyclopedia.

Compilation of the above dictionaries further indicates that words in different dictionaries, as lexical items, fall under the following themes:

5. Finding and Suggestions

This study clearly indicates that like in all scheduled languages, there is no publication to show a single comprehensive tribal language dictionary of Odisha having all the required features of a lexicon because of distinctive nature of each tribal language. However, the 28 dialectical dictionaries so far published, can be brought under a comprehensive standard dictionary covering all the words Attempt should therefore be made to compile such a standard and comprehensive dictionary. These dialectical dictionaries can be used to develop and compile a multilingual dictionary from Odia to different tribal languages in a single volume as one finds dictionary from Hindi to other modern Indian languages. Research in this direction is the need of the hour. This study further suggests that there is a need for an urgent establishment of a Tribal University in Odisha, which can undertake research in tribal language, literature and culture of Odisha. Because, Odisha is the only state in India where 62 tribes live. With the help of tribals, linguists, anthropologists, sociologists and lexicographers, the tribal languages in Odisha have a bright future for its development in all manifestation.

References

  1. Ota, A.B. & Mohanty, B.N. (2010). Population profile of Scheduled Tribes in Orissa, Bhubaneswar: The Scheduled Caste and Scheduled Tribe Research and Training Institute.
  2. Padhi, Pitambar.(1994). Reference Sources in Modern Indian Languages. Bhuabaneswar: Gayatri devi Publications.
  3. Padhi, Rajendra & Upadhayaya, Bijaya. (2000). Desia Gyanakosha. Bhubaneswar: ATLC.
  4. The Scheduled Caste and Scheduled Tribe Research and Training Institute. (2004).Tribes of Odisha. Bhubaneswar: Author

  1. Retired Professor of Library and Information Science, Utkal University, Bhubaneswar, Odisha
  2. Semi-Professional Assistant (Lib), IGNOU, Regional Centre, Koraput-764020