A Dictionary of Place Names of Odisha: Design, Development And Analysis

Sucheta Jena
Prof. Pitambar Padhi

Abstract Usefulness of place name Dictionary
Introduction Suggestion & Conclusion
Some Definitions of Place names Appendices

Abstract

The study of place-names known as “Toponyms” involves study and research into language, history, personalities, people, geography, topography, religion and cultural tradition, politics and even local industries. A place- name is a window that can shade light on the past as who the inhabitants were at that time? Where they went and how they communicated with? The coining of names often follows in the wake of historical developments. Odisha has a great and glorious history having been ruled by the local kings and outsiders like Mughals, Marathas and Britishers during different periods and they imposed many place names. The place name gives the meaning and origin of names of countries, towns, cities and villages of historical and cultural interest tracing their development from earliest times to the present day. It reflects the cultural heritage , tradition and an identity, which need to be recorded in dictionary format for generation to use and so this article.

1. Introduction

The invention of nomenclature is among the greatest achievements of the human species and the practice of giving names to places is as old as the story of man itself. One is therefore, driven by a natural inquisitiveness to probe into how and why particular place names have evolved. They unravel for us tremendous human activity on different planes. A place - name can carry in its pack centuries of history, it can tell us what the landscape was like a millennium ago and it can reveal features of a language long disappeared. Place names narrate their interesting characteristics. Hence a place name is an expression of the name-giver’s thought process.

The first National Conference on Dictionary making in Indian Languages held in 1970 at Mysore under the auspices of Central Institute of Indian Languages, as expressed anguish and concernover the absence of a dictionary of place names in the majority of the Indian Languages and at the same time recommended for the generation of a Dictionary of Place names for each state. This recommendation was taken note of by the present authors and they felt the need for designing and developing a place name dictionary for the state of Odisha. The Place Name reflects our cultural heritage , tradition and an identity, which need to be recorded in dictionary format for generations to use . In this paper, we attempt to design a place name dictionary for the state of Odisha.

2. Some Definitions of Place names

2.1 Characteristics of Place Names

The five “W”s depict the main characteristics of place names.

These characteristics open the doors for the physical characteristics of the place, characteristics of the people, information about the then culture, languages, histories, habitats, spatial and environmental perceptions.

3. Usefulness of place name Dictionary

Dictionary of place names is a vehicle for public and personal reference. They are used for location, delineation and identification. They can also function as powerful political tool (e.g. anti-German sentiments during World war I resulted in renaming of 69 German place names in south Australia) As a mechanism for personal reference, toponyms play an integral part in personal identity, because people always associate themselves with one or more places. Dictionaries have two broad functions: communicative and Cognitive. Those designed for communicative purposes are used for language encoding or decoding (Bi-lingual dictionaries and Learner’s dictionaries are best examples). Dictionaries compiled for cognitive purposes are chiefly used for acquiring knowledge or information. Place name dictionaries have cognitive functions i.e. they are knowledge oriented, and should therefore, be considered as specialized or technical dictionaries.

3.1 Objectives

3.2 Materials and Methods

In securing names for the study, and their origins, the following documents were perused:

  1. Imperial Gazetteers of Angul, Balasore, Cuttack, Koraput, Puri, Sambalpur (1908) by L.S.S. O’ Malley. The Bengal Secretariat, Calcutta.

  2. Odisha Districts Gazetteers of 13 districts (Baleshwar -1992, Balangir-1968, Boudh – Kandhamals- 1983, Cuttack-1992, Dhenkanal-1972, Ganjam-1995, Kalahandi-1980, Kendujhar-1986, Koraput-1966, Mayurbhanj-1969, Puri-1977, Sambalpur-1971, Sundargarh-1975) published by Department of Revenue, Govt. of Orissa.

  3. Final Report on the Revenue Settlement of Orissa 1922 – 1932 A.D by W.W.Dalziel. Revenue Superintendent, Government Printing, Bihar, Orissa, Patna.

  4. Final Report on the Survey and Settlement of the Province of Orissa 1890 to 1900 A.D. Vol I – II by S.L.Maddox, Board of Revenue, Orissa.

  5. Report on Land Tenures and the Revenue system of the Orissa and Chhatisgarh states by R.K.Ramdhyani, Indian Law Publication Press, Berhampur.

  6. Purna Chandra Bhasakosha, Vol I – VII (1931- 1942) by Gopal Chandra Praharaj. UtkalSahitya Press, Cuttack.

3.3 Methodology

3.3.1 Review of Literature:

In order to get a firsthand knowledge on development of place name dictionary, the authors have referred to various print and online place name dictionaries published across the world. These sources have given ample opportunity to the authors to predict the future development in this field in Odisha. Many place name dictionaries are published across the world with a common purpose to standardize the place names and preserve it for next generation as cultural heritage. A list of place name dictionaries published all over the world is as follows:

Internatioanl Publications

  1. Coulet du Gard, R. (1983). Dictionary of Spanish Place Names of the Northwest Coast of America. [Newark, Del.]: Editions des deuxmondes.

  2. Currie, A. (1994). Dictionary of British Place Names. London: Tiger Books International.

  3. Everett-Heath, J. (2005). The concise dictionary of world Place-Names, Oxford: Oxford University Press.

  4. Falileev, A., Gohil, A., & Ward, N. (2010). Dictionary of Continental Celtic Place-Names. Aberystwyth, Wales: CMCS.

  5. McKay, P. (1999). A Dictionary of Ulster Place-Names. [Belfast, Northern Ireland]: Institute of Irish Studies, Queen's University of Belfast.

  6. McKay, P., & O. Muraile, N. (2004). Place-Names of Northern Ireland. Belfast: CloOllscoilna Banriona, Queen's University of Belfast.

  7. Mencken, H. (1919). Supplement II The American Language.

  8. Mills, A. (2010). A Dictionary of London Place-Names. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

  9. Mills, A., & Mills, A. (2003). A Dictionary of British Place-Names. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

  10. Orth, D. (1967). Dictionary of Alaska Place Names. Washington: U.S. Govt. Print. Off.

  11. Picard, M. Dictionary of Americanized French-Canadian Names.

  12. Raper, P., &Raper, P. (2004). New Dictionary of South African Place Names. Johannesburg: Jonathan Ball.

  13. Rayburn, A. (1997). Dictionary of Canadian Place Names. Toronto: Oxford University Press.

  14. Rayburn, A., & Rayburn, A. (2010). Place Names of Canada. Don Mills, Ont.: Oxford University Press.

  15. Room, A. (1989). Dictionary of World Place Names derived from British Names. London: Routledge.

  16. Room, A. (2003). The Penguin Dictionary of British Place Names. London: Penguin.

  17. Savage, T. (2007). A Dictionary of Iowa Place-Names. Iowa City: University of Iowa Press.

  18. Watts, V., Insley, J., & Gelling, M. (2004). The Cambridge Dictionary of English place-names. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

National Publications

  1. Bhagia, I. (1984). A Study of Place Names of Baroda District (Gujarat) (Ph.D.). GujaratUniversity.

  2. Dhar, J.N. (2004). OdisharaSthhananama.Bhubaneswar: Apurba.

  3. JavareGowda, D. (1998). Village Names of Mysore District. Mysore: Place Names Society of India in collaboration with Asian Educational Services, New Delhi.

  4. Joshi, S. (1951).Etymology of Place Names Patti-Hatti, some observations on the Institute,32-41-56.

  5. Murthy, S. (1985). A Study of Telugu Place Names. AgamkalaPrakashan, New Delhi.

  6. Naccimuttu, K. (1985). Prospectives in Place Name Studies: Proceedings of the National Seminar on South Indian Place Names. Mysore: Place Name Society.

  7. Nair, Raman.,& Devi, Sulochana. (2010). Chattampi Swami. Trivandrum: Centre for South Indian Studies.

  8. Nambuthiri, N. (1987). A Study of Place Names in the Calicut District (Ph.D). University of Calicut.

  9. Sadhu, S., & Raina, B. (2000). Place Names in Kashmir. Mumbai: Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan.

  10. Sharma, T. (1978). Personal and Geographical Names in the Gupta Inscriptions. Delhi: Concept.

A cursory review of the publications of place name dictionaries in both national and international levels indicates that like other traditional disciplines, this domain of research lacks sufficient literature necessary to attain the status of a separate subject of research. But as the trend of few publications in this area shows, the future is not far away when it shall attain the status of research with more and more work in this direction. However, the literature reviewed herein gives sufficient clue for understanding and developing this study

3.3.2 Design and Development of Computer Programme

After careful reading of the Manual for the National Standardization of Geographical Names of United Nations Group of Experts on Geographical Names (UNGEGN,2006) it is observed that one of the major objectives of the place name research is to preserve the nation’s geographical names as it is our cultural heritage. In today’s date to preserve, search and to generate the findings of place details by using computer programme a web – enabled application is most suited to the purpose and for this purpose a system study is being made. The application is developed with the help from a software professional. The web – enabled application PLACE INFORMATION SYSTEM (PIS) is developed in Visual Studio 10 using C#.NET LANGUAGE. MSSQL Server 2008 R2 has been used as backend server. The application provides an interface to enter place data in details. The front-end facilitates to retrieve data on query by providing necessary search string. Data can be searched on Place Significance, Place name and District. It is possible in this application to edit the data, if required.

3.3.2.1 Structure of place table is as follows

FIELD NAME

DATA TYPE

REMARKS

ID

varchar(2)

System Generated

PLACE NAME

varchar(50)

 

SIGNIFICANCE

varchar(50)

 

LONGITUDE

varchar(15)

 

LATITUDE

varchar(15)

 

DESCRIPTION

varchar(1000)

 

REACH

varchar(50)

 

STA

varchar(50)

 

SEE

varchar(50)

 

BUY

varchar(50)

 

TIMEFROM

nchar(10)

 

TIMETO

nchar(10)

 

DISTRICT

varchar(50)

 

IMAGE

Image

 

ENTRY ON

Date time

 

To generate the report, the application uses ITEXTSHARP. iText is a PDF library that allows to generate reports based on data from a database in the Portable Document Format (PDF). In the application various reports can be generated from the search output by clicking on the PRINT button.

3.3.2.2 Format of the Study

Place name dictionaries are under the cognitive category as they are knowledge oriented and satisfy the requirements of various categories of people. To obtain this cognitive value and to fulfil the needs of different segment of people, the structure of the present Place Names Dictionary of Odisha is as follows:

3.3.2.3 Output of Computer Generated Place Name Dictionary

After inputting the data in the software, the information is retrieved through searching with different query which are analysed below. The field through which search can be made under the field District, Significance, Place Name etc. Any term of the above field put into the search box, it is automatically retrieve the particular place from the database. Some of the results are discuss below.


Data Entry Page

Searching Place Names by Significance and Result

Two examples :

 

ARADI

Derivation and meaning:

Here is folklore behind the name of this place. Once upon a time, a peasant was ploughing in the field. A rock, struck by the pointed end of the plough, began to bleed profusely. The peasant was alarmed. Screaming “Haradi” loudly, the peasant prostrated on the ground. Hearing the peasant’s screaming noise; the villagers rushed to the site and unearthed a Shivling. Then the village was named ‘Haradi’ which, over the period of time, has been transformed into ‘Aradi’ as its current name.

Significance: Religious

Latitude and Longitude: 20°48'43"N and 86°39'20"E

District: Bhadrak

Description of the Place :

Place is famous for Baba Akhandalamani, the temple of the lord Siva. There are many fairs and festivals observed at the temple of Baba Akhandalamani like Mahasivaratri which is locally called Jagaramela. On this day pilgrims and devotees inside and outside the state are assembled and worship Akhandalamani at Aradi. Bol bam devotees come to Aradi in large number from different areas in the month of Sravana to worship the God and pour holy water over the Linga. The Bol bam devotees carry holy water from different rivers of India like Ganges, Baitarani, Mahanadi, Salandi, Peta etc. with a bamboo lever. The Gharsana prasad (Drink) every devotee must have taken along with miraculously-generated source of water from a well, treated as pious. Major festivals here:-Panaa Sankranti, Chandanyatra, Siva Vibah (The wedding ceremony of Lord Siva), Shrabani Mahotshab are the most important festival.

How to reach:

ASIKA

Derivation and meaning:

“Aska” means “Sugar” in Tamil Language. Due to establishment of sugar factory, the place named as “ASIKA”.

Significance: Industrial

Latitude and Longitude: 19006’09’’N and 840, 65’19’’E

District: Ganjam

Description of the Place:

Asika (also called Aska) is known for Sugar city and having the 1st sugar Plant in Asia established in 1824, build by Minchin Saheb in British time.This factory has its own name. Due to this factory the Aska Town is known as Sugar City.Aska is rich with Jagannath culture. There are five Jagannath Temples i.e. in the areas of Sunamba Street, Market Area, Khambeswari Patna, and Lalagurji and at Nuagaon, Sugar factory. The deities of SunambaSahee happen to be the ancient one. The temple at Sugar Factory looks very beautiful. The town is crowded with the devotees of surrounding villages during the Car festival season. The presiding deities of the place are Khambeswari Thakurani and Tridiveswara. The image of Khambeswari is a stone pole which has been anthropomorphized by the addition of a disc on the top symbolised as a head. The nose and mouth are slightly carved and three eyes, protruding tounge. The Trideveswara temple stands on the bank of the river Rushikulya and is regarded as the tutelary deity of the Pandya Brahmins of the locality. The sanctum of the temple does not contain any deity but the circular pedestal marked by three symbols is worshipped as Brahma, Vishnu and Maheswar. The UtkalAyurvedic Pharmacy Co- operative Limited is another important institution of the place.

How to reach:

Best time for visit: October to February

3.4 Classification of Place Names:

Classification is one of the means by which the complexities are solved and the mysteries unravelled. The variety and the enormity of Place Names of Odisha entail the following pattern of classification.

Place Names after Individual Names: In this group of classification, the name of a place is captioned after a person who, established the village and have reputation for the social service, valour and philanthropy. Example: Delanga, Hukitola, Raibania, Sunki (Appendix-1)

Place Names after Religious and Puranic Importance: In this group of classification, the place names are grouped under the Names of God & Goddesses, names of Saints & Sages, Priests and Religious Leaders, Religious Institutions, Puranic Heroes, Events, and Celestial Bodies. Example:Badamba, Binikei, Indravati, Kesna (Appendix-2)

Place Names derived on Historical Significance: Royal Dynasties, King, Queen and Princess, Military men and Feudal Chiefs and dignitaries, who once upon a time played a dominant role in shaping the well-being of the people of the area are included under this category. Example: Kolab, Saintala, Malkangiri, Kotpad (Appendix-3)

Place Names derived on Ethnographic Significance: The Tribes, Castes and Professions, Families, Relations, Customs, and Races have also played a vital role in naming a particular place name. Example: Aryapalli, Bhatli, Rengali, Mlechamunda. (Appendix-4)

Place Names derived from Geographical and Physical Features: Place Names, named after Habitations, Valleys, Mountains, Water - bodies like fountains, Rivers, Ponds, and Tanks, etc. are included under this category. Example: Chaurasi, Deulajhari, Duduma, Satapada (Appendix-5)

Place Name derived after Flora: Trees, Plants, Creepers, Grass and Shrubs, Gardens and Forests, Flowers and Leaves, Grains, Pulses and other agricultural products play as a source of derivation of place name. Example: Hinjilicut, Kantilo, Talcher, Simlipal (Appendix-6)

Place Name derived after Fauna: Animals, birds, and reptiles also contribute a significant role in coining the place name. Example: Baghamari, Gandahati, Karlapat, Pipli (Appendix-7)

Place Names derived after Natural Phenomena: Storms, Rains, Thunders, Clouds, Sunrise and Sunset are some of the natural occurrences occasionally reshape and dislocates the places generating new name under their influence. Example: Anshupa, Astaranga, Duburi, Taptapani.(Appendix-8)

Place Names derived due to Commercial Importance: Establishment of Ports, Business Centres, Industries and Factories in an area influence significantly for naming a place. Example: Asika, Boipariguda (Appendix-9)

Miscellaneous Place Names: Place Names which are derived out of Myths, Superstitions, Beliefs, Sentiments, Relation, and significance of a borrowed historical and religious place are included in this category.Aradi, Ayodhya, Eram, Joranda (Appendix-10)

4.Suggestion & Conclusion

Place Name cannot be studied from its face value as it involves a great wealth of information relating to history, geography, ethnology, archaeology, language, culture, politics and such other kindred disciplines, which are embedded in the bosom of each name. ‘By and large a Place Name is the voice of external soul, the breath of several generations of people, the foot print of civilization of bygone days, the inviolate record of human history and a great inspiration of mankind’. The present study of Place Names of Odisha indicates that; the western countries have recognised, since 18th century, the importance of such studies by providing encouragement and fillip. United Nations has for the first time grasped the value of place names by appointing a group of experts on the standardization of geographical names in 1961. The Government of India after obtaining the views of the State Governments laid down, way back in 1953, certain rules and procedures that were to be followed while changing and determining their correct spelling. The Survey of India and the National Atlas Organization have also tried to standardize the spellings of place names with the help of Epigraphical records, literary works, State Gazetteers, Dictionaries, and Encyclopaedias etc. It is with the help of these sources that the pronunciation, the spelling, the etymology, the semantic value, and the history of place names have to be traced and determined.

The present study has tried to take help of such records in designing and preparing the dictionary of place names of Odisha with the help of a computer application PLACE INFORMATION SYSTEM (PIS), developed at our end. But this work may not be claimed as an exhaustive and comprehensive one. Therefore, it is suggested that the Government of Odisha or any one of the universities in Odisha may appoint a committee consisting of various experts to compile a comprehensive and exhaustive Dictionary of Place Names (Odia and English). At each district, the study of Place Names is to be undertaken by the help of a group of experts supported by Government. For each district A Place Name Dictionary is to be compiled by a group of local experts. While compiling the Dictionary for the State, the dictionaries developed at the district level should be integrated.. The Odia version of the place name dictionary may be named as “SthalaNaama Kosha”.

References

  1. Gelling, M. (1978). The Place-Name Evidence in Berkshire'. In S. Limbrey& J. Evans, The Effect of Man on the Landscape (1st ed., pp. 123-128). London: the Lowland Zone.
  2. Kostanaski, Laura (2009). What’s in a Name: Attachment and Dependence in Place – Name-based identity? Unpublished PhD, University of Ballarat.
  3. Oxforddictionaries.com, (2015). Oxford Dictionaries - Dictionary, Thesaurus,& Grammar.
  4. United Nations Group of Experts on Geographical Names,. (2006). Manual for the national standardization of geographical names. New York: Department of Economic and Social Affairs.
  5. Wikipedia, (2015). Main Page. Retrieved 18 December 2015, from https: //en. Wikipedia .org

Bibliography

  1. Dhar, J. N. (2004). OdisharaSthhananama. Bhubaneswar: Apurba.
  2. Javare Gowda, D. (1998). Village Names of Mysore District. Mysore: Place Names Society of India, in collaboration with Asian Educational Services, New Delhi.
  3. Naccimuttu, K. (1985). Prospectives in Place Name Studies: Proceedings of the National Seminar on South Indian Place Names. Mysore: Place Name Society.
  4. Sockwell, S. M. (1985). The Place Names of Colbert and Lauderdale Counties, Albama: University of Albama.
  5. Stewart, G. (1954). A Classification of Place Names. Names: A Journal of Onomastics, 2(1), 1-13.
  6. Taylor, I., & Palmer, A. (1864).Words and Places, or Etymological Illustrations of History, Ethnology, and Geography, Detroit: Gale Research Co.
  7. Tent and, J., & Blair, D. (2011). Motivations for Naming: The Development of a Toponymic Typology for Australian Place-names. Names, 59(2), 67-89.

Appendix-1

Place Names derived after Individual Names

 

Place Name

Individual Names

Significance

1.

BHANJANAGAR

After the name of Great Poet KabiSamrat UpendraBhanja

Reservoir

2.

CHAMPAMAL

After the person name Champa

Religious

3.

CHANDBALI

Derived after a Merchant Name

Archeological, Picturesque

4.

DAMBARUGUDA

Coined after a Tribal Head

Scenic

5.

DELANGA

Derive from Acharya Dingnag,the Buddhist Logician and Philosopher

Archeological

6.

DHARAKOT

Derived after the Founder of Naga Dynasty

Palace

7.

DUMURIPUT

Tribal chief name.

Scenic

8.

HIRAPUR

Derived after a Queen’s Name

Archeological, Hypaetheral Temple

9.

HUKITOLA

British Engineer J.H.Walker, whose nick name as Hookey.

Archeological

10.

JHARSUGUDA

After the name of Jharkishan, a tribal Head

District Headquarters, Industrial belt

11.

KABISURYA NAGAR

After the great poet name Kabisurya BaladevRath

Temple

12.

KULLAD

From the name of a Tribal leader Kulla

Baghradevi Temple

13.

MANIKAPATNA

After the name of a milkmaid

Archeological, Mythological

14.

MARSHAGHAI

After the name of a British administrator

Agriculture

15.

RAIBANIA

Ray Baliar Singh, the founder of the fort

Archeological

16.

RAYAGADA

Derived after the name of a Chief of Kandha tribe

Temple, Historical, Scenic, and Industrial

17.

SUNASAGADA

Derived after the name of a Kondha Chief

Temple

18.

SUNKI

Col. Sankey, a German Engineer

Ghat

Appendix-2

Religious and Puranic Importance Place Names

 

Sl. No.

Place Name

Religious & Puranic Importance

Significance

1.

AMANGEIKUDA

After the name of Goddess Amnagei

Scenic, Religious

2.

AMMAKUNDA

Derived from Tribal Goddess

Waterfall

3.

ASURAGARH

Named after a Demon king

Archeological

4.

ATRI

Derived its name after the name of Lord Hatakeswar

Hot Spring

5.

BADAMBA

After the name of the Goddess Bruhatambaa

Religious, Scenic

6.

BALIMELA

After a religious festival “ Bali

Dam

7.

BANPUR

Derived its name from Banasura

Religious

8.

BANAMALIPUR

After the name of one of the member of “PanchaSakha”

Trade& Commerce, Religious

9.

BHADRAK

After the name of Goddess Bhdrakali

Religious

10.

BHAWANIPATNA

After the name of the presiding deity ‘Bhawanishankar’.

Archeological, Religious

11.

BHIMKUND

Derived its name from second Pandava “Bhima”

Pool, Mythological

12.

BHUBANESWAR

Lord Bhubnaneswar, the Lord of the Universe.

State Capital, Religious, Mythological, Scenic, Archeological

13.

BINIKEI

After the name of Goddess Binikei

Scenic

14.

BRAHMAPUR

From the name Brahma, the Creator”.

Arts & Crafts, Religious

15.

BOUDH

Derived its name after Lord Buddha Deva

District Headquarters, Buddhist Monastery

16.

BUDDHA KHOL

After the name of the Lord Buddha

Scenic

17.

CHANDANESWARA

The name derived from Lord Chandaneswara

Religious, Sea Beach

18.

CHANDIKHOL

Derived after Goddess Chandi

Religious, Scenic

19.

CHARADA

Derived after Goddess Charadei

Religious

20.

DASASWAMEDHAGHAT

Religious events

Religious

21.

DHABALESWARA

The alternate name of Lord Mahadev

Religious

22.

DHAMARA

After the Goddess name Dhamarai

Port

23.

DOKRICHANCHARA

Derived after a “Female deity”

Waterfall

24.

GOPALPUR

After the name of Lord Gopal

Sea Beach

25.

GUPTESWAR

Derived its name from Lord Shiva

Mythological, Cave, Religious

26.

HANDIBHANGA

Religious Festival

Waterfall

27.

HARISHANKAR

Lord Vishnu and Shiva

Religious, Scenic, Archeological

28.

HINGULA

Goddess Hingula

Religious

29.

HUMA

Religious importance

Religious

30.

INDRAVATI

Derived its name from GodessIndravati

Dam

31.

JATANI

Derived from Goddess Jatiani

Religious

32.

JOGISARADA

Derived due to meditation point of Saints

Religious

33.

KAMAKSHYANAGAR

Derived from Goddess Kamakshyi

Temple

34.

KAPILAS

Derived after the name of Saint.

Religious

35.

KAPTIPADA

Derived after the name of a Goddess

Mythological, Archeological

36.

KENDRAPARA

Demon King Kandarasura

Religious

37.

KESNA

Derived after the name of Draupadi

Arts& Crafts

38.

KHANDA GIRI

After the name of Lord Kartikeya

Caves, Archeological

39.

KHANDADHAR

After Goddess Khanduala Devi

Waterfall

40.

KHANDUALADHAR

Derived its name after a Goddess Name

Waterfall

41.

KONARK

After the name of Sun God

Religious, Archeological

42.

KOSHALA

Derived its name after Lord Rama’s younger brother name

Religious

43.

KUPARI

After the Saint name Krupacharya

Religious

44.

LOKANATH

The alternate name of Lord Shiva

Religious

45.

MAHENDRAGIRI

Lord Indradev

Scenic, Mythological, Religious

46.

MANYAMKONDA

Derived its name due to PuranicImoprtance.

Religious, Mythological

47.

MURSING

Lord Nrusingha

Religious

48.

NARAJ

Puranic

Scenic

49.

NARAYANI

Goddess

Religious, Scenic

50.

NRUSINGHNATH

Lord Nrusingha

Religious

51.

PANCHALINGESWARA

Linga the alternate image of Lord Mahadev

Religious, Scenic

52.

PANDARA

After the name of “Panava” of Mahabharat Age

Religious, Hospital

53.

PARADEEP

Derived its name from the Sage name

Port

54.

PENDRA

Place derived after the GoddessPendrani

Temple

55.

QUADAM- I – RASOOL

Due to Prophet Mohammad Foot Print

Religious

56.

RANPUR

After the name of a Demon king

Palace

57.

SAKSHIGOPAL

Derived after Lord Gopal

Religious

58.

SAMBALPUR

After the name of Goddess Samalai

District Headquarters, Religious, Archeological

59.

SITABINJ

After the name of Lord Rama’s wife Sita

Religious, Mythological

60.

SITAKUNDA

After the name of Lord Rama’s wife Sita

Waterfall

61.

VEDAVYASA

Derived its name from Vyasa Deva, the writer of Epic Mahabharata

Religious, Scenic

 

Appendix-3

Place Names of Historical Significance

Sl. No

Place Name

Historical Importance

Significance

1.

ANGUL

Tribal chieftains

District Headquarters, Industry

2.

ATHAMALLIK

Eight Chieftains once ruled this place.

Scenic & Historical

3.

BALANGIR

BalramDeo, 19th Raja of Balangir

District Headquarters, Historical

4.

BARIMUND

Rebellion against Mogulas

Laksheswar Temple

5.

BIKRAMKHOL

King’s legacy

Archeological

6.

BINIKA

King’s Name

Historical

7.

BIRAMITRAPUR

King’s Name

Industrial

8.

CHANDAKA

After the name of Minister of Kapilavastu

Wildlife

9.

CHAUDWAR

King’s Fort

Industrial

10.

CUTTACK

King’s Capital

District Headquarters, Archeological, Historical, Art & Craft

11.

DEBRIGARH

Fort

Wildlife

12.

DERABISH

Millitary Camp

Temple

13.

DHENKANAL

Sabara Chief

District Headquarters, Temple, Historical, Scenic

14.

JAGATGARH

King’s Name

Historical

15.

JAGATI

King’s Name

Temple

16.

JAGATSINGHPUR

Akber’s Armed Force General Mansingh’s son

District Headquarters

17.

JAJPUR

King’s Name

District Headquarters, Biraja Temple

18.

JAUGADA

Fort

Archeological

19.

JAYPORE

King’s City

Historical, Scenic

20.

KOLAB

Queen Name

Dam

21.

KOTPAD

Fort

Art & Craft

22.

KUALO

Dead Fort

Archeological

23.

MALKANGIRI

Commander of Golkonda

District Headquarters, Mythological, Historical, Forest

24.

MARAGUDAVALLEY

Dead Fort

Archeological

25.

NANDAPUR

King’s Dynasty

Historical, Picturesque

26.

NAYAGARH

King’s City

Historical, Ladu Baba Temple

27.

PATNAGARH

King’s Fort

Handloom

28.

PURUNA KATTAK

King’s Military Camp

Temple

29.

PURUSOTTAMPUR

King’s Name

Temple, Picturesque

30.

RAJANAGAR

King’s City

Historical

31.

RAJGANGPUR

King’s Dynasty

Industrial

32.

RIGHAGARH

British Officer

Historical, Temple

33.

SAINTALA

Military

Temple

34.

SAJANAGARH

Fort

Temple

35.

SORO

Marahata Chief

Trade& Commerce

 

Appendix-4

Ethnographic Place Names

Sl. No

Place Name

Ethnography

Significance

1.

ARYAPALLI

Derived from Race

Sea Beach

2.

BARIPADA

Derived from Caste

Temple

3.

BHATLI

A occupation in King’s period

Religious

4.

BONDA HILLS

Derived from Tribe

Mythological

5.

CHIKITI

Derived from a profession

Archeological

6.

GHASIAN

Derived from a Caste

Religious

7.

JUNAGARH

Derived after a Custom

Religious

8.

KANTILO

Derived from a race name

Religious

9.

MANATRI

Derived after a Custom

Religious

10.

MERAMANDALI

Derived after a Custom

Industrial

11.

MLECHAMUNDA

Derived from a Tribe

Archeological

12.

NAYAKPADA

Derived from a Caste

Mythological, Caves

13.

PAPADAHANDI

Derived from Beliefs

Saheed Memorial

14.

RANIPURJHARIAL

Derived from Race

Archeological

15.

RENGALI

Derived from Profession

Dam, picturesque

16.

ROURKELA

Derived from Tribe

Industrial

 

Appendix-5

Place Names from Geographical and Physical features

Sl. No

Place Name

Physical Geography

Significance

1.

ATHARANALA

Derived from the existence of Drain

Bridge

2.

BADAGHAGARA

Derived from the existence of waterfall

Waterfall

3.

BALASORE

Derived from the existence of sea

District Headquarters, Scenic

4.

BHIMKHAND

Derived from the existence of Mountain

Industry, Archeological

5.

BUGUDA

Derived from the existence of Village

Temple

6.

CHAURASI

Derived from the existence of Well

Temple

7.

CHOWMUKH DAGARA

Derived from the existence of Sea

Sea Beach

8.

DASAPALLA

Derived from the existence Area

Forest, Dam

9.

DEULAJHARI

Derived from the existence of Stream

Hot Spring, Temple

10.

DUDUMA/JOLAPUT

Derived from the existence of Water

Waterfall

11.

GUDAHANDI

Derived from the existence of Mountain

Archeological, Hill, Natural Beauty

12.

HATIPATHAR

Derived from the existence of Mountain

Waterfall

13.

KHALIKOTE

Derived from the existence of Mountain

Scenic beauty

14.

LALITAGIRI

Derived from the existence of Mountain

Historical, Buddhist Site

15.

LANGUDI

Derived from the existence of Mountain

Archeological, Buddhist Culture

16.

MARJA-KUD

Derived after water – Body

Scenic

17.

NILAGIRI

Derived from the existence of Mountain

Temple

18.

PANCHUPALLIPRAGANA

Derived from the existence of Habitation

Temple

19.

PODAGARH

Derived after existence of Fort

Archeological

20.

PODASINGIDI

Derived after existence of Fort

Archeological

21.

POTAGARH

Derived after existence of Fort

Archeological

22.

PURI

Area of settlement

Srikshetra, District Headquarters, Sea Beach

23.

PUTUDI

Derived after water body

Waterfall, Scenic

24.

RATNAGIRI

Derived from the existence of Mountain

Buddhist Monument.

25.

REMUNA

Derived due to beautiful environment

Temple

26.

SAPTASAJYA

Derived from the existence of seven hills

Mountain, Scenic, Stream

27.

SATAPADA

Derived from existence of seven villages

Dolphin Sanctuary

28.

SATKOSIA GORGE

Derived after water body spreading 14 kms

Scenic, Wildlife Sanctuary

29.

TIKARAPARA

Derived after its highland

Crocodile Sanctuary, Scenic

30.

TUREKELA

Hunting Ground

Scenic

 

Appendix-6

Place Name based on Flora

Sl. No

Place Name

Place Name on Flora

Significance

1.

BELAKHANDI

Derived from a Fruit name

Archeological

2.

BONAIGARH

Derived from Forest name

Palace, Temple

3.

BORIGUMMA

Derived from Fruit name

Archeological

4.

DARINGBADI

Derived from Tree name

Hill Station, Scenic

5.

GANJAM

Derived from Grains

Handicrafts

6.

HINJILICUT

Derived from Tree name

Trade& Commerce

7.

KAKUDIAPADA

Derived from Fruit name

Scenic

8.

KANIKA

Derived from a Grain name

Palace

9.

KASAPHAL

Derived from a Fruit name

Sea Beach

10.

KENDUJHAR

Derived from a Fruit name

Temple, Scenic

11.

KENDULI

Derived from a Fruit name

Temple

12.

KORAPUT

Derived from a Tree name

Temple, Waterfalls

13.

PATTAMUNDAI

DerivedfromPaddy field

Annual Religious Affair

14.

SALIPUR

Derived from Paddy

Cultural

15.

SIMLIPAL

Derived from Tree name

Sanctuary, National Park, Forest

16.

TALASARI

Derived from Palm Tree

Sea Beach

17.

TALCHER

Derived from a Tree name

Industrial, Religious, Historical

18.

TENTULIKHUNTI

Derived after Tamarind Tree

Religious

Appendix-7

Place Names based on Fauna

Sl. No

Place Name

Place Name on Fauna

Significance

1.

BAGHAMARI

Derived From Tiger name

Picturesque

2.

BELGHAR

Derived from Wild animal

Wildlife

3.

CHILIKA

Derived from Bird’s name

Lake

4.

GAISAMA

Derived after the name of Cow

Religious

5.

GANDAHATI

Derived from Animal name

Waterfall

6.

KARLAPAT

Derived from Tiger name

Wildlife Sanctuary

7.

PIPILI

Derived after the name of Butterfly

Arts& Crafts

Appendix-8

Names after Natural Phenomena

Sl. No

Place Name

Place Nameson Natural Occurrence

Significance

1.

ANSHUPA

Derived from Natural reshape of Sea

Lake, Picturesque

2.

ASTARANGA

Derived after the movement of Sun

Beach, scenic beauty

3.

CHANDRAGIRI

Derived after the name of Moon

Picturesque, Religious

4.

DUBURI

Derived from Naturally originated hole

Mines

5.

GHUMUSARA

Natural occurrence of Ups & Down of Place

Saheed Memorial

6.

HIRAKUD

Derived after the existence of Diamond

Dam

7.

PARLAKHEMUNDI

Derived from Stone name Coral

Palace, Arts& Crafts

8.

TAPTAPANI

Natural occurrence of Hot water

Hot water spring, Picturesque

Appendix-9

Place Names of Commercial Importance

Sl. No

Place Name

Trade & Commerce

Significance

1

ASIKA

Establishment of Sugar Industries

Industry

2

BOIPARIGUDA

Business centers

Scenic

Appendix-10

Miscellaneous Place Names

Sl. No

Place Name

Miscellaneous

Significance

1.

ARADI

Derived after a Sentiments

Religious

2.

AUL

Derived after a Relation

Historical

3.

AYODHYA

Borrowed name

Religious, Archeological

4.

BHITTARAKANIKA

Borrowed name

Scenic, National Park

5.

BISSAMCUTTACK

Derived after a Myths

Scenic

6.

CHHATIA

Derived after a Beliefs

Religious

7.

DEVAGIRI

Derived after a Beliefs

Religious, Scenic

8.

DEVKUND

Derived after a Beliefs

waterfall, Forest and Scenic Beauty

9.

DHAMNAGAR

Derived after a Beliefs

Religious

10.

DHAULI

Derived after a Myths

Religious, Archeological, Historical

11.

ERAM

Derived after a Sentiments

Historical

12.

GANDHAMARDHAN HILL

Derived after a Beliefs

Scenic, picturesque

13.

GHATAGAON

Derived after a Myths

Religious

14.

GONASIKA

Derived after a Beliefs

Religious

15.

JHANKAD

Derived after a Myths

Religious

16.

JORANDA

Derived after a Travel

Religious

17.

JUNAGARH

Derived after a Superstitions

Religious

18.

KAIPADAR

Derived after a Myths

Religious

19.

KAKATPUR

Derived after a Myths

Religious

20.

KALIJAI

Derived after a Beliefs

Religious

21.

KHICHING

Borrowed from other Place Name

Religious Historical, Art & Craft,

22.

KHORDHA

Derived after a Myths

District Headquarters, Historical

23.

METAKANEE

Derived after a Myths

Religious

24.

NANADANKANAN

Borrowed Name

Zoological Park, Botanical Garden

25.

NUAPADA

Borrowed Name

Headquarter, Religious

26.

PAL LAHARA

Beliefs

Historical

27.

PHULABANI

Myths

District Headquarters, Scenic

28.

RASOOLGARH

Sentiments

Historical

29.

SATIGUDA

Myths

Dam


1. Sucheta Jena, Research Scholar, Library & Information Science, Utkal University, BBSR. Email :This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.. Mob: 9861437180
2. Prof Pitambar Padhi, Ex- Professor, Dept. Of Library & Information Science, Utkal University, BBSR. Email: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. Mob: 9438284188