Youngest of Seven Sons: A Juang Story

Dr. Biyotkesh Tripathy

A Juanga Story from Gupta Ganga, Keonjhar, Orissa


Teller: Bikram Juanga


[M 50 (blind).Village: Gupta Ganga, Bansapal, Keonjhar. Date: 9 Oct, 1998. Cassette No. 55, Side A-B; Oriya Transcript Pp. 3782-91. Status: As told (minor editing & emendation). Type: Tale; Translator: Biyotkesh Tripathy. Transcriber: Fani Bhushan Pothal]

In a kingdom there was a king, an old sadhaba, a propertied man. He had seven sons, sir. Of these sons, he finally got the youngest one married. All his other son’s wives were good-looking and healthy. But the youngest one’s wife was dark, black like the bottom of the earthen cooking pots. Very black, indeed. That son was bemoaning this: this bloody woman is so black, doesn’t suit me at all! What shall I do? And the woman is pregnant! Advanced she was, sir, only a few days left for childbirth. What he thought, he thought of a way: let me ask her to come with me to cut wood in he forest. There I shall hack her dead and go away.

He said to his wife, ‘Let’s go cut some wood in the forest.’

His wife thought: the man’s asking me to go with him after so long; so let me. So thinking, she went with him.

After they had gone a little distance, the woman was tired and said, ‘Sit down here with your legs stretched, I want to sleep a little while with my head on your thighs.’

So, this seventh son sat down with both his legs stretched and she slept with her head on his thighs. After a while, he noticed a large black bumblebee flying about with several things grabbed in its legs. It held a white flower in one leg, with another it held a red one, yet with another it held a blue one, and with the fourth it held a black flower. Four kinds it held in his legs. The bumblebee flew around in front of him.

This youngest son thought: this insect has flowers of many colours, yet it also holds a black flower, which is much blacker than my woman. Why should I bloody well kill my woman then? No, I shall not. It will be a sin, murder. No, I shall not kill her. Let her sleep.

When she got up from sleep, she said to him, ‘You wanted to kill me, why didn’t you?’

‘How did you know?’ he asked in surprise.

‘No, I had a dream that you were asking me to come for cutting wood to kill me. Didn’t you ask me for this purpose?’

‘Yes, I did,’ he said.

‘Do you like me now or what?’

‘Yes, I do.’

‘How come? When you brought me for this, why didn’t you kill me?’

‘No, I had a dream too. I saw an insect, a bumblebee, flying about holding flowers of many colours in its leg and one of them was blacker than you. So, I thought this was only an insect, and it was happy to carry a black flower along with others and it appeared to me that I should not kill you.’

‘So, now, let’s cut some wood and go away somewhere. Aren’t you thinking this?’

‘Yes, that’s what I was thinking.’

But as they were going, the night fell and the woman went into labour. She gave birth to child, but she died. The mother was dead, what should he do with the child? Who would take care of it? I can’t bloody well suffer for this. Thus thinking, he hid the child under a tree. Let it die if that’s what must happen. Without doing anything else, he left as soon as it was morning.

Soon after this, an old man and an old woman were passing by that path, going somewhere. They heard a cry coming from under a tree.

‘It sounds like an infant. Let’s see, let’s see,’ they said.

They went and saw that it was indeed an infant boy lying under the tree.

‘Oho,’ they said. ‘No, we must take this boy and take care of him, bring him up.’

So, sir, what happened was that they took that boy. They took care of him. But, when he was old enough to run about and tend goats, the old man died. When the old man died, only the old woman was left. What to do?

‘No,’ the old woman said, ‘you must go and do something now, maybe tend someone’s goats. Can you herd goat?’

‘Yes, I can.’

So, he became a goatherd. Some days passed tending goats. One day he told the old woman that he wanted to earn some money and bring it home.

‘You want to earn money, do you?’


‘Okay, go.’

So, he started earning money. With his income he started cultivating paddy. He bought the seeds and sowed them. The rains came down. He did all the chores on the field. The paddy grew into a huge crop. It was super.

When the paddy was ripening, he told the old woman, ‘Mother, unless you bring me a bride, I shall not watch the crop on top of the machan, day and night, all alone.’

‘My son,’ his mother said, ‘this is not the right time as everyone is busy in cultivation. Who will give us a girl now?’

‘No, no, you must. I won’t work otherwise.’

‘Okay, okay, all right,’ she said.



What the bloody hell,

the mother thought. What shall I do? She thought deep.

Next day, she told her son, ‘The paddy’s near ripe, now. Flocks of pigeons will descend and eat away all the grain. Go, watch the field.’

‘I’ve been telling you to bring me a bride. Have you done that?’

‘Yes, I have,’ she said. ‘Go and see. I have put her on the machan.’

‘You have put her on the machan?’

‘Yes. Go, take your rice to eat and go.’

He took rice, water etc. for two people and went away quickly.

‘I have wrapped the red sari around her. I have dressed her up nicely and made her sit on top of that machan. With great care she has veiled herself.’

When he looked up at the machan from a distance, he saw the deep red colour up on its platform. He felt greedy looking at that sight.

When he reached the place, he said, ‘Come, my darling, let’s eat rice. Come, get yourself down. Come.’

But she did not come down. Thinking that she was, perhaps, feeling shy of him, he thought he should eat his rice and leave her portion for her. When be called her after eating, she did not come down. He thought: what the hell, she’s not bloody coming.

‘Okay, you woman, just you wait,’ he said. ‘I’m coming up with your rice so as you’ll eat. Isn’t that what you want?’

She could reply only if she was a human being. But she was only a statue.

He took the food up and said, ‘Take and eat. It’s getting to be night already.’

But she said not a word. Not even a whisper.

‘Come, eat now.’

But she did not say a thing.

No, is it because I am sitting here, she is feeling shy, since she is a new bride. Let me go inside the little room.

So thinking, he entered the little enclosure on the machan and said, ‘Okay, now, eat up, it’s night already. Let’s sleep.’

Still she said nothing. He was very annoyed. What a silent woman! I shall bloody kill the bitch. Then he gave her a hefty kick, whereupon she fell with a thud on the ground below.

‘O, my woman’s running away, my beautiful woman,’ he cried. Quickly descending from the machan, he started searching for her in the darkness, running this way and that blindly. He searched for her very hard. All night long he kept running in search of her. By the time it was morning he had reached another kingdom. In front of him was a big pond. Oho, their place for water, he thought. They will come here as they have dug this pond here. Okay, woman, just you wait. You’ll come here, surely, to bathe.

He gathered a bunch of the thorny branches of kana-berry bushes to thrash her with when she came. Soon he saw a woman coming.


he thought, that must be her. So thinking, he pounced upon her when she reached him and started thrashing her, not knowing it was none other than the princess of the kingdom.

‘Bloody bitch,’ he shouted as she fell to the ground, ‘where do you think you are running away, hein? Running away, being my woman! Running about all night long, bloody hell, my feet are bleeding like nobody’s business! You want me to run after you, hein? No, siree! Bloody, woman, you want me to pay money and salute the pimp? Bloody well, cheating me!’

In no time a huge crowd gathered. A hubbub arose. People shouted, ‘What’s this fellow? Is he a demon or a madman? He’s beating our princess and calling her "my woman?"’ They tried to grab him and separate them. But the fellow was not leaving her. Finally, the minister was called. It is said, sir, that if the king is wise, the minister is wiser,. So, the king called the minister.

The minister said, ‘Whatever it is, the man is a bridegroom, looking for his bride whom he surely wants very much. So, let us give the princess to him. Now, let us leave them alone.’

So, the crowd left him and dispersed. Everyone went away leaving the man and the princess who lay on the ground. The princess had applied many fragrant things to her body, things that girls apply. On top of it she was a princess. When the smell reached the man’s nose, not knowing what it was, he thought that the girl smelt because she was dead and rotting away. She looked good only because she was clad in good clothes. He was sad, but started thinking of disposing her off profitably. In the mean time, a man came along with a horse.

The young man said to him, ‘Horseman, sir, will you take this beautiful woman in exchange of your horse?’

The man with the horse readily agreed.

The young man went on his way with the horse wondering what use was the horse to him. Perhaps, he had the worse of the bargain. At this time, a man came by with a bullock.

The young man said to him, ‘Bullock man, sir, will you take this good horse for which I have no use and give me your bullock?’

The man with the bullock readily agreed and went away riding the horse. The young man thought, on the way, that he should give his bullock a drink. So he took him to a pond. As the bullock drank, it started pissing. The young man thought: my god, I have been cheated. This bullock has a leak in its belly. It’s useless. What shall I do with it? As he was bemoaning his fate, he met on the way a man with a basket full of brinjals (egg plants).

On seeing him, the young man asked, ‘What are you carrying?’


‘Will you take my bullock in exchange for your brinjals?’

The brinjal man was relieved that he did not, now, have to sit all day long selling his brinjal. So, he agreed. The young man thought he should wash the brinjals clean. So he went to a pond and put the brinjals in the pond. The brinjals floated on the water. The young man thought: ha, these are floating. They must be worm infested. I’ve had a bad bargain. So he left the brinjals floating and ran back straight home.

When his mother saw him, she said, ‘Aren’t you supposed to be watching the paddy?’

‘Yes,’ he said, ‘but what kind of a mother are you? The woman you brought for me ran away somewhere. All night I spent running about every which way, looking for her. I found her finally when it was morning, 7 or 8 or thereabouts, but she was smelling something awful. Her body was rotting, surely, for it smelt so! So I left her in that village.’

The mother said on hearing this, ‘Let’s go, let’s go.’ Where did he leave her, if it’s a woman, he’s such a fool?

So they went walking fast all the way. On the way, her son said, ‘Mother, I have left her, your daughter-in-law, with a man in exchange for a horse. And the horse I exchanged for a bullock for there was a hole in its belly. Water leaked away from it when it drank. So I exchanged it with a brinjal man for his basket of brinjals. But the brinjals, mother, were worm infested, for they floated in the water. Rotten, mother. So I left them floating.’

‘So okay,’ his mother said, ‘just you lead me to it.’

When they reached the pond, the brinjals were still floating. They gathered it from the water and arranged them in the basket.

‘Now, you carry the basket,’ the mother said.

He carried the load and took her to the man to whom he had sold the bullock.

His mother said to the man, ‘This my son is a fool, a big fool. So, please, keep your basket of brinjals and give us our bullock.’

‘O, all right, take your bullock.’

They gave the brinjals and took their bullock. Then they went to the horseman. There also they succeeded in bringing the horse back by returning the bullock. Then, having got the horse, they went to the man to whom the son had given the girl. Returning his horse to him, they got back the girl, the daughter-in-law.

Back home, they performed a regular marriage. They ate and drank and lived happily and freely.

The brinjal leaf is dead and my story is ended.

Photograph by Dr. Biyotkesh Tripathy

Artist in the Forest

The Juang (also spelt as Juanga) is a tribal community living in the hills and forest covered plains of central Orissa (in Eastern part of India). The word Juanga means "human being" or "man." The Juanga woman is called "Juangadai". They are thin built, short stature, brown complexion people speaking a language of Mundari group confirming to Australoid racial category. They were mentioned by E. T. Dalton in “Descriptive Ethnology of Bengal”(1872). The well known missionary turned anthropologist Verrier Elwin was attracted to these forest living artistic people in the mid-forties of the last century. The Junags were studied by various scholars at different times on various aspects of their existence viz., social, cultural, economy, ecological, physical and health.
These scantily clad forest dwellers, were never short of decorative ideas and capacities. Their houses are very simple but these people know how to design decorative ornaments, artifacts and even bamboo flutes and combs. In a convenient spacious location they build an open door "Majanga" or "Manda Ghara," a community house, where they gather in the morning to decide on community tasks. The pictures presented here from late nineteenth century celluloid capture by Dalton in mid twentieth century and photograph by Elwin have become historical past. With passage of time and change in cultural outlook due to exposure to the development agents, the Juangs have learnt to cover their bodies with modern garments like other Hindu neighbours. Their own language has been confined to themselves and they communicate with others in Oriya language.

The whole tribal community lives in two adjacent districts viz., Keonjhar and Dhenkanal in central Orissa. It is claimed that they originally lived in the hills of Keonjhar near the origin of a major river Baitarani (Juang pirh – tr. seat of Juang). The numerical strength of the Juangs constantly increased from 9173 in 1891 census to 30,876 in 1981 census, with slight decrease in 1921 and 1951 census counts. These people originally used to cultivate Hill Land (Taila) by slash and burn cultivation (Dahi). The Dhenkanal Juangs started cultivating low land and became settled cultivators. Shrinking land on the hills and Government prohibitions, could not sustain growing population since 1961. Now many Juangs accepted wage labour as primary means of earning.

In spite of poverty, these forest dwellers are very fond of dance, decorative art and merry making. Some examples of Juang art is presented here from collection of Verrier Elwin (The Tribal Art of Middle India) and Shri A. C. Sahoo (Art and Culture of the Juang). The article of Dr. Rabi Narayan Dash, in this issue, is an exclusive exposition of Juang ornaments. This issue carries a Juang story from The Biyot Tripathy Collection made by Dr. Biyotkesh Tripathy who is engaged in collection of Indian tribal folklore comprising myths, legends, tales, songs and lore.

Transition :






First Graduate

Sources: Photographs

  • Comb: The Tribal Art of Middle India by Verrier Elwin

  • Flute: A. C. Sahoo

  • Juang Girls(1872): Descriptive Ethnology of Bengal by E. T. Dalton

  • Juang Girl (1948): Man In India by Verrier Elwin

  • Juang Dancers (1992): Juang Dance by R. P. Prusty

  • First Graduate: Dr. Biyotkesh Tripathy

(1 to 5 are taken from the book Art and Culture of Juang, Ed. by Dr. Rabi Narayan Dash, Published by Orissa Lalit Kala Academy, 1992)

Birsa Munda: A Hero of Tribal Movement

Manas Kumar Das

The tribal people usually do not raise their voice unless their life, livelihood and cultural identity are threatened. During the British colonial rule, such things happened to the forest dwelling tribal peasants. In early 19th century the British rulers ignored the social and economic autonomy of large number of tribal communities residing in the present Jharkhand-Bihar areas. This was augmented by luring the simple tribal people to Christianity. Previously, these nature-worshiper or animist people, accepted the Hindu Vaishnavism during the sojourn of great Vaishnva saint Sri Chaitanya. This did not interfere with their religious practices. But Christian Missionaries hit at the root of their belief in supernatural and social institutions.

Memorial at Sailpur
When their right on own land was at stake, many tribal communities of Chhota Nagpur area, rose in revolt. Thus there were several revolts by the Munda, the Kol, the Ho, the Oraon and the Kherwar in the early part of nineteenth century. This movement was large scale and prior to it the Mundas had begun showing displeasure since 1789. These were mainly directed against the non-tribal exploiters who were backed by the colonial rules.

The christianised tribal people understood exploitation and revolted for their right over land. All these struggles and sporadic upsurges continued throughout nineteenth century which culminated in an intensified movement led by Birsa Munda in the last part of 19th century.

Birsa without a turban(1900)

Formative period of life of Birsa:
There is controversy over exact place and date of birth of Birsa Munda as the tribal people were not used to keep birth records . While some sources accept November 15, 1875 as Birsa's date of birth, some claim it to be July 18, 1872. His biographer K.S Singh accepts the latter date. Birsa was born to a poor ryot Sugna Munda. Birsa was educated at a small nearby town Chaibasa up to primary level in a Christian Mission School. He was baptised in 1886. His association with the missionaries at Chaibasa was for four years which made him capable of understanding the contemporary situation to form his own opinion. Birsa’s family which originally affiliated themselves to Roman Catholic mission, however, after some years, denounced it.

At this time, Birsa became close to Hindu Vaishnavites, the Panre brothers, and adopted Hindu customs. Along with spiritual work Birsa became associated with people's struggle against deprivation and exploitation. Birsa's spiritual prowess brought him respectability in his community so much so that the people started believing that their supreme Lord ‘Singbonga’ is with Birsa.

Birsa under Arrest

Further, Birsa's involvement in people's struggle and his leadership earned him a permanent place in the hearts of the struggling tribal communities. He was looked upon as their saviour. As a young man Birsa was much ahead of his contemporaries in his vision and revitalised the Sardar movement that had started since 1830.

Both the Sardar and Birsa movements had their origin in agrarian exploitation.The Sardars were loyal to the British and the King of Chotanagpur but wanted elimination of exploitative intermediary class. Some became violent in 1892 having no positive political aim and plan. Birsa’s aim was to get both political and religious freedom. Finding no way out, the Sardars joined Birsa movement to drive out the foreigner and establish Birsa Raj.

The Beginning of the Agitation
The government got the distorted picture of Birsa movement. It was alleged that Birsa was instigating the munda people to disobey government orders, and to refuse paying taxes to the government. Birsa followers declared that British rule has ended. The government sent police to arrest them but the Birsa followers could repulse the police and targeted the missionaries. The Birsa followers became cause of worry for the British Government who ordered Birsa’s arrest on charges of treason.

The Arrest and Release of Birsa
.The District Superintendent of Police executed the arrest warrant of Birsa along with nine of his followers. Birsa was arrested at Chalkad in August 1895 while he was asleep. The police arrested him without much opposition except the scuffle with Birsa. He along with his followers were given two years rigorous imprisonment. He spent most part of prison life in Hazaribagh jail but he was released from Ranchi jail on 30th Nov 1897. He was asked not to indulge in any anti government activities.

Preparation for the uprising
The Birsa followers were inspired by his release and soon increased their activities under the leadership of Birsa. The Birsaites were divided into two groups one to organise revolt and another to deat with religious awareness. The religious group taught the people about the golden age of their ancestors, revival of their lost faith, right on property and about their condition due to exploitation by the Rajas, Zamindars etc. Underground preparation for greater revolt was going on and Birsa infused enthusiasm. He made them understand that under new system of governance, which the followers called "Birsa Raj" , the land and forest would belong to the peasants and therewould be a new religious faith combining traditional beliefs. Birsa made extensive tour of the area and held secret meetings with the Birsaites.

The insurrection of 1899-1900
The insurrection of 1899-1900 spread with the ideas that the Mundas were the real owners of the land, they had to establish Birsa Raj and Birsa religion . On the eve of Christmas, the Birsaites as per their plan started attacking the Christians and Churches of Chakradharpur, Khunti, Torpa, Tamar and Basia. All these incidents created panic among the European people.

Fight with the Government
On 5th January 1900, seven police men were sent to Etkdih to arrest Gaya Munda, a Birsaite Sardar. These police men were killed. The next day a large police contingent led the Deputy Commissioner arrested Gaya Munda after a pitched battle where the wife of Gaya Munda fought bravely. This was a unique incident. The Birsa troop attacked Khunti police station with bows, arrows and axes, burnt it down, but did not loot money. This incident created panic among the police. The administration cracked down on the Birsaites, captured and tortured them. During this period of intensified police attack, Birsa Munda always changed his place of stay and inspired his fellow men. He wanted to show his charisma of his divine ability, but many were not enthused.

From 13th to 26th January 1900, the Commissioner ordered for search operations by which many Birsaites were arrested or compelled to surrender. They were offered rent free land and cash reward to provide information on Birsa and Birsites. Out of poverty and threat, many became informers to British administration. On 28th January, 1900, Donka and Manjhia Munda, the two frontline leaders and 32 other Birsaites were forced to surrender. On 3rd February 1900, the police informers found out Birsa in dense forest and captured him while he was asleep. He was brought to Ranchi hastily apprehending mob resistance. There was huge crowd on the way to salute their leader.

The End of a Dedicated Life
Birsa was kept in jail along with many of his followers. On 20th May 1900, he was taken to the court along with his comrades but he fell ill on the way and was taken back to the jail. He was diagnosed to be suffering from cholera. His condition deteriorated. On June 9, 1900, he died in the jail. Birsa Munda's death is shrouded in mystery. Some suspect food poisoning could be the cause but the British authorities claimed cholera as cause of his death.

In the trial of the Birsaites , Gaya Munda, his son and Sukhram were given capital punishment. Donka Munda , Manjhia Munda and 34 other Birsaites were sentenced for transportation. Other Birsaites were given some years of rigorous imprisonment. Thus, the life of a great person along with the movement came to an end. But Indian Freedom Movement drew inspiration from it in the later days.

Existence of Birsaism in present day
Although the life of Birsa Munda ended fighting for the cause of his deprived fellow people, his religious philosophy known as "Birsaism" perpetuated in that region. Now followers of Birsaism form a strong community and are found in many villages in Porhat area of Jharkhand. They consider themselves as belonging to a distinct religion. The unique aspect of this religion is that it prohibits drinks, eating meat, teaches personal hygiene through ritual bath and purification of heart and soul.

Birsa Munda and his movement in Chhota Nagpur, 1874-1901, "We fought together for freedom" edited by Ravi Dayal, Indian Council of Historical Research and Oxford University Press, Delhi, 1995, Page 27-45

"The Reluctant Prophet", The Pioneer Anniversary issue, 15 Dec 1996, Page 3, New Delhi

"Birsa Munda(1875-1900), The Freedom Fighter and Leader of Tribal Resurgence", Ulgula, Birsa Munda Statue Committee, Rourkela, Orissa, 1998

Source: Photgraphs
Singh K.S. 2002 "BIRSA MUNDA(1872-1900)", New Delhi, National Book Trust.

Indian Tribal Folklore: The Biyot Tripathy Collection

Dr. Biyotkesh Tripathy

The Collection

Material Placement and Availability

The Region and the Tribes

Material Available

The Need

Uploaded Material

The Team


The Collection

This is the largest single collection of Indian tribal folklore comprising myths, legends, tales, songs and lore. This is an entirely original collection made through fieldwork among the tribal people of Orissa in India. Recorded on 208 cassettes, which are now also available in CDs, the material has been transcribed in Oriya script running to about 17000 pages, which are classified in terms of individual items for the convenience of researchers and scholars. The classification system is an improved version of the system followed by the Archives of Traditional Music and Folklore of Indiana University at Bloomington, where it is housed. The improvement has been made with the sole purpose of making the material visible and rendering it easy of access for the scholar.

The Region and the Tribes

Orissa is an eastern state of India with a very rich tribal heritage, with about 62 tribes living in its forests and hills, often difficult of access. They speak as many languages and dialects, but many of them can speak Oriya (the language of the state) or Desia (a mix of Oriya and the language of the tribe). Many tribal villages can be reached only on foot through jungle paths. A small number of tribes still live a nomadic life, moving from forest to forest. They can only be found at remote weekly markets where they come to sell the jungle produce they have gathered and to buy provisions. While they live in varying habitats in varying states of civilization, their rich intangible heritage is embedded in their oral traditions, which needed to be recovered and preserved.

The Need

Acculturation by the global mainstream society, although it is inevitable, as tribal desires have become affixed to it, has become so invasively rapid that in another generation the rich oral heritage of our tribal people will be lost. Already, the younger generation, with access to radio, TV, movies, and mainstream education, has lost access to their heritage. After the passing of the present older generation, this rich material will be irrecoverably lost. Hence, there is urgency for such collections.

The Team

Biyotkesh Tripathy (formerly, Professor of English at Utkal University, Orissa, India), the prime mover of this collection, started in the late 1990s on a project which he called "From the Margin to the Centre: Mythology and Folklore of the Tribal People of Orissa." With singular dedication he is still continuing his work. He took as his associate, Dr E. Raja Rao (formerly, Professor of English at Berhampur University, Orissa, India). He chose the other members of his team from among college teachers of the tribal regions he targeted. These teachers are still working with him with dedication. The transcriber was Mr Fani Bhusan Pothal, Lecturer in English (Nudadiha College of Mayurbhanj, Orissa, India).

Material Placement and Availability

All the material is now available at the following places:

  1. Archive of Traditional Music and Folklore, University of Indiana at Bloomington, Bloomington 47405-2501, Indiana, USA. Tel: (812) 335-8632.

Contact Person: Marilyn B. Graf, Archivist. E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Academic Consultant: Prof. Daniel Reed. E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

2. Prof. Biyotkesh Tripathy E-mail: <This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.>

1018A Nayapalli, Bhubaneswar 751 012, Orissa, India

Tel: (91) (0)674-2562325.

Copies of the material will be placed with other libraries and archives of the world in course of time.

Materials Available

The following material is available at both the places:

  1. 208 cassettes and their CDs. These are numbered serially in standard numerals.
  2. 17000 pages of transcripts.
  3. Cassette Content Detail (CCD): Lists classified details of each material recorded in a cassette along with field details.
  4. Transcript Page Continuity List (PCL): Lists pages serially, indicating the serial number of the cassette in which the material is recorded.
  5. Cassette Serial List (CSL): Lists cassettes serially, indicating the page numbers of the transcript where the material has been transcribed.

Uploaded Material

At present the following material has been uploaded:

  1. Cassette Content Details (CCD in 3 above) of all the cassettes have been uploaded so that the entire Biyot Tripathy Collection becomes visible and available for perusal. Download (Zipped: Two Excel files)
  2. Translations of the material will be placed in regular installments on this website.

ISSN: 2249 3433


The word tribe is variously used in literature to denote a community on the basis of homogeneity. Originally many autochthonous communities who were identified by similar culture, social organisation and governance, living away from the main stream life of a country, were mentioned as tribe by their colonial rulers and Western scholars. Many such communities have moved towards the mainstream lifestyle so that they may no longer be identified as secluded, underdeveloped people with queer customs. This has happened to all areas of the world where tribal communities live. Still, many tribal communities lead their lives in very primitive ways devoid of the techno-economic glamour of contemporary civilization. These communities are labeled as "Primitive Tribal Groups". Indian Government has identified such tribal groups to give special attention to their development, whereas in the Indian Constitution all the tribal groups are recognized as "scheduled tribes".


Editorial Board

Professor S.K.Ghoshmaulik
Retd Professor of Anthropology, Utkal University is the Editor of this e-zine

Managing Editor
Professor Birendra Kumar Nayak
Retd. Professor of Mathematics, Utkal University

Associate Managing Editor
Dr. Pramod Kumar Parida
Retd. Reader in Odia language and literature

Technical Editor
Soumya Dev
Masters in Computer Applications

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